Kidney stones are a common health problem for many people.
Passing these stones can be incredibly painful. And,
unfortunately, people who have experienced kidney stones are
more likely to get them again (1).
However, there are a few things you can do to reduce this risk.
This article explains what kidney stones are and outlines 8
dietary ways to fight them.
What Are Kidney Stones?
Also known as renal stones or nephrolithiasis, kidney stones are composed of
hard, solid waste materials that build up in the kidneys and
While smaller stones are usually not a problem, larger stones
may cause a blockage in part of the urinary system as they
leave the body.
This can lead to severe pain, vomiting and bleeding.
Kidney stones are a common health problem. In fact, about 12%
of US men and 5% of US women will develop a kidney stone during
their lifetime (3).
Below are 8 natural ways you can reduce the risk of forming
another kidney stone.
Bottom Line: Kidney stones are firm lumps
formed from crystallized waste products in the kidneys. They
are a common health problem and passing large stones can be
1. Stay Hydrated
When it comes to kidney stone prevention, drinking
plenty of fluids is generally recommended.
Fluids increase the volume and dilute the stone-forming
substances in urine, which makes them less likely to
On the other hand, consuming a lot of soda may contribute to
kidney stone formation. This is true for both sugar-sweetened
and artificially sweetened sodas (9).
Bottom Line: Staying hydrated is important
for preventing kidney stones. Yet some beverages may decrease
the risk, while others may increase it.
2. Increase Your Citric Acid Intake
Citric acid may help prevent calcium oxalate kidney stones in
two ways (17):
Prevents stone formation: It can bind with
calcium in the urine, thus reducing the risk of new stone
formation (18, 19).
Prevents stone enlargement: It binds with
existing calcium oxalate crystals, preventing them from
getting larger. It can help you pass these crystals before
they turn into larger stones (16, 19).
An easy way to consume more citric acid is to eat more citrus
fruits, such as grapefruit, oranges, lemons or limes.
You can also try adding some lime or lemon
juice to your water.
Bottom Line: Citric acid is a plant compound
that may help prevent kidney stones from forming. Citrus
fruits are great dietary sources.
3. Limit Foods High in Oxalates
However, your body also produces it in considerable amounts.
A high oxalate intake may increase oxalate excretion in urine,
which can be problematic for people who tend to form calcium
oxalate stones (21).
Oxalate can bind calcium and other minerals, and form crystals,
which can lead to stone formation (21).
However, foods high in oxalate also tend to be very healthy, so
a strict low-oxalate diet is no longer recommended for all
Before changing your diet, consult your doctor or dietitian and
get tested to find out whether you will benefit from limiting
Bottom Line: Foods high in oxalate can be
problematic for some people. However, seek advice from a
health professional before limiting these foods, as it’s not
necessary for all stone-forming people.
4. Don’t Take High Doses of Vitamin C
One study among middle-aged and older Swedish men found that
vitamin C supplement takers may be twice as likely to develop
kidney stones as those who don’t take supplements (23)
However, note that vitamin C from food sources, such as lemons,
is not associated with an increased stone risk (27).
Bottom Line: There is some evidence that
taking high doses of vitamin C supplements may increase the
risk of calcium oxalate kidney stones in men.
5. Get Enough Calcium
It’s a common misunderstanding that you need to decrease your
calcium intake in order to reduce your risk of forming
One study placed men who had previously formed
calcium-containing kidney stones on a diet containing 1,200 mg
of calcium per day. It was also low in animal protein and salt
The men had about a 50% lower risk of getting another kidney
stone over five years than the control group, who followed a
low-calcium diet of 400 mg per day.
Dietary calcium tends to bind with oxalate in the diet, which
prevents it from being absorbed. The kidneys then don’t have to
pass it through the urinary system.
Dairy products like milk, cheese and yogurt are good
dietary sources of calcium.
For most adults, the recommended daily intake (RDI) of calcium
is 1,000 mg per day. However, the RDI is 1,200 mg per day for
women over the age of 50 and everyone over the age of 70.
Bottom Line: Getting enough calcium may help
prevent kidney stone formation in some people. Calcium may
bind to oxalate and prevent it from being absorbed.
6. Cut Back on Salt
A high intake of sodium, a component of table salt, may
increase calcium excretion through urine — which is one of the
main risk factors for kidney stones (33).
One of the best ways to decrease your sodium intake is to cut
back on packaged, processed foods (38).
Bottom Line: If you’re prone to forming
kidney stones, restricting sodium may help. Sodium may
increase the amount of calcium you excrete in urine.
7. Increase Your Magnesium Intake
It is involved in hundreds of metabolic reactions within your
body, including energy production and muscle movements
The RDI for magnesium is 400 mg per day. If you want to
increase your dietary magnesium intake, avocados, legumes
and tofu are all good dietary sources.
To get the maximum benefits, consume magnesium along with the
foods you eat that are high in oxalate. If that’s not an
option, try to consume the source of magnesium within 12 hours
Bottom Line: Some studies show that
increasing your magnesium intake may help decrease oxalate
absorption and reduce the risk of kidney stones.
8. Eat Less Animal Protein
A diet high in animal protein sources, such as meat, fish and
dairy, is associated with a higher risk of kidney stones.
All foods contain purines, but in different amounts.
Kidney, liver and other organ meats are very high in purines.
foods, on the other hand, are low in these substances.
Bottom Line: A high intake of animal protein
may increase your risk of developing kidney stones.
Take Home Message
If you’ve had a kidney stone, you’re very likely to develop
another one within 5–10 years. The good news is that certain
dietary measures may help reduce this risk.
You can try increasing your fluid intake, consuming foods rich
in certain nutrients, eating less animal protein and avoiding
sodium, to name a few.
Just a few simple measures may go a long way in preventing
painful kidney stones.