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Assessment of Nutritional Status for seminar

Assessment of Nutritional Status Learning Objectives: To
undersatand the basic anthropometric techniques and
applications. Introduction The nutritional status of an
individual is often the result of many interrelated factors.
Nutritional Assessment Why? The purpose of nutritional
assessment is to Identify individual or population groups who
are malnourished. Identify individual or population groups at
risk of becoming malnourished. To develop health care
programmes that meet the community needs which are defined by
the assessment. To measure the effectiveness of the
nutritional programmes and intervention once initiated.
Methods of Nutritional Assessment Direct and Indirect Direct
methods of nutritional assessment: These are summarized as
ABCD. Indirect method of nutritional assessment These
included three categories. Clinical assessment It is the
simplest and most practical method of ascertaining the
nutritional status of a group of individuals. Detection of
relevant signs helps in establishing the nutritional
diagnosis. Clinical Assessment Advantage Fast and easy to
perform Inexpensive Non Invasive Limitations. Clinical Signs
of nutritional deficiency Anthropometric methods
Anthropometry is the measurement of body height, weight and
proportions. Other anthropometric measurements Mid arm
circumferences Skin fold thickness Head circumference Head/
Chest ratio Hip/ Waist ratio Anthropometry for children
Accurate measurement of height and weight is essential. The
results can then be used to evaluate the physical growth of
the child. Measurement of adults Height: The subject stands
erect and bare footed on a stadiometer with a movable head
piece. The head piece is leveled with skull vault and height
is recorded to the nearest 0.5 cm. Nutritional Indices in
adults The international standards for assessing body size in
adults is the body mass index.(BMI) BMI is computed using the
following formula. BMI = Weight (Kg)/ Height (met)2 BMI (
W.H.O Classification) BMI 30 – 40 = Obese ( Grade 2 obesity)
BMI > 40 = very obese ( morbid or grade 3 obesity)
Advantages of anthropometry Objective with high specificity
and sensitivity. Readings are numerical and gradable on
standard groth charts. Limitations of anthropometry Inter
observers errors in measurement. Limited nutritional
diagnosis. Problems with reference standards i.e local verus
international standards. Dietary Assessment Nutritional
intake of human is assesses by five different methods. These
are 24 hours dietary recall. Food frequency questionaire.
Dietary history since early life. Food dairy technique.
Observed food consumption. Initial laboratory assessment Hb
estimation is the most important test and useful index of the
overall state of nutrition. Specific lab tests Measurement of
individual nutrient in body fluids( e.g serum reinol, serum
iron, urinary iodine, vit D) Detection of abnormal amount of
metabolites in urine ( e.g urinary creatinine / hydroxy
proline ratio) Analysis of hair, nails and kin for
micronutrients. Advantages of biochmical method It is useful
in detecting early changes in body metabolism and nutrition
before the appearance of overt clinical signs. It is precise,
accurate and reproducible. Limitations Time consuming
expensive.

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