Many Americans are shocked to enter a European supermarket and
find that eggs are stored outside of the fridge.
This is because authorities in most European countries say
refrigerating eggs isn’t necessary. But in the US, it is
considered unsafe to store eggs at room temperature.
This leads some people to believe that Americans are overly
cautious when it comes to egg storage, while others believe
Europeans are too relaxed.
So who is right? As it turns out, both are.
It’s All About Salmonella
Salmonella is a type of bacteria that lives in the
intestines of many warm-blooded animals. It’s perfectly safe
when contained within the animal’s intestinal tract, but it can
cause serious illness if it enters the food supply.
An infection from Salmonella can cause unpleasant
symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea and be especially dangerous
— even fatal — for the very old, the very young or those with
compromised immune systems (1).
Common sources of Salmonella outbreaks are alfalfa
sprouts, peanut butter, chicken and eggs. In the 1970s and
1980s, eggs were found to be responsible for 77% of
Salmonella outbreaks in the US (2, 3).
An egg can be contaminated with Salmonella either
externally, if bacteria penetrate the eggshell, or internally,
if the hen itself carried Salmonella and the bacteria
was transferred into the egg before the shell formed (4).
How eggs are handled, stored and cooked is essential for
preventing Salmonella outbreaks from contaminated
For example, storing eggs below 40°F (4°C) halts the growth of
Salmonella, and cooking eggs to at least 160°F (71°C)
kills any bacteria that is present.
While eggs aren’t any different in the US and Europe, the way
they’re treated for Salmonella is. Therefore, whether
your eggs need to be kept in the fridge or not really depends
on how your country tackles Salmonella.
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Bottom Line: Salmonella is a type
of bacteria that is a common cause of foodborne illness. How
countries treat eggs for Salmonella determines if
they need to be refrigerated or not.
Eggs Should Be Refrigerated in the US
In the US, Salmonella is mostly treated externally.
Before eggs are sold, they go through a sterilization process.
A handful of other countries, including Australia, Japan and
Scandinavian countries, treat eggs the same way.
This method is highly effective at killing the bacteria found
on egg shells. Unfortunately, it does nothing to kill bacteria
that may already be present inside of the egg, which is often
what makes people sick (5, 6, 7).
The washing process may also remove the cuticle of the egg,
which is a thin layer on the eggshell that helps protect it.
While refrigeration does not kill bacteria, it reduces the
likelihood of you becoming sick by keeping the number of
bacteria limited. Refrigeration also makes it more difficult
for bacteria to penetrate the eggshell (10, 11).
However, there is another important reason that eggs must be
kept in the refrigerator in the US. To keep bacteria to a
minimum, the FDA requires commercially sold eggs to be stored
and transported below 45°F (7°C).
And once eggs have been refrigerated, they must always be kept
refrigerated to prevent them from forming condensation if they
warm up. The moisture makes it easier for bacteria to penetrate
So whether you are willing to take the risk of coming across a
contaminated egg or not, the fact that eggs in the US are
washed and refrigerated before purchase means they really
should be kept that way.
Bottom Line: In the US and a few other
countries, eggs are washed, sanitized and refrigerated
quickly after being laid in order to minimize bacteria.
Therefore, eggs must remain refrigerated.
Eggs Don’t Have to Be Refrigerated in Europe
Many European countries do not refrigerate their eggs, even
though they experienced the same epidemic of
Salmonella cases in the 1980s.
While the US chose to control Salmonella contamination
through egg washing and refrigeration, many countries in Europe
have chosen to improve sanitation and vaccinate hens against
Salmonella, preventing infection in the first place
The UK is a shining example of this. After a mandatory campaign
to vaccinate all egg-laying hens against the most common strain
of Salmonella, the number of Salmonella cases
in the country dropped to the lowest level in decades (13).
Contrary to the US, washing and disinfecting eggs is illegal in
the EU (Sweden and the Netherlands are exceptions) (14).
While this may seem unsanitary to Americans, the logic is that
the egg cuticle and shell are left undamaged, functioning as a
layer of defense against bacteria (4).
Therefore, it is considered unnecessary to refrigerate eggs.
In fact, the EU recommends that eggs be kept cool, but not
refrigerated, in supermarkets in order to prevent eggs from
warming up and forming that unwanted condensation during the
Because eggs in the EU are treated differently than in the US,
it’s fine to keep eggs out of the refrigerator as long as you
plan to use them soon.
Bottom Line: In most European countries,
Salmonella is kept under control with preventative
measures like vaccination. It is usually illegal to wash
eggs, so an egg’s cuticle remains intact and they don’t have
to be refrigerated.
Other Pros and Cons of Refrigeration
Even though you may not need to refrigerate your eggs,
depending on where you live, you might want to.
This is because refrigeration can provide some benefits.
However, it can also have drawbacks. Below are the pros and
cons of egg refrigeration.
Pro: Refrigeration Can Double an Egg’s Shelf Life
Storing your eggs in the refrigerator is the best way to keep
bacteria under control.
As an added bonus, it also keeps eggs fresher for much longer
than storing them at room temperature.
While a fresh egg stored at room temperature will start to
decline in quality after a few days and need to be used within
1–3 weeks, eggs kept in the refrigerator will maintain quality
and freshness for at least twice as long (15, 16, 17).
Con: Eggs Can Absorb Flavors in the Fridge
Eggs can absorb odors and flavors from other foods in your
fridge, such as freshly cut onions.
However, storing eggs in their carton and sealing foods with
strong odors in airtight containers can prevent this from being
Con: Eggs Shouldn’t Be Stored in the Fridge Door
Surprisingly, where you store your eggs in the refrigerator can
make a difference too.
Many people keep their eggs in the door of the refrigerator.
However, this can subject them fluctuations in temperature
every time you open the fridge, which could encourage bacterial
growth and impair the egg’s protective membrane (4).
Therefore, keeping eggs on a shelf near the back of the
refrigerator is best.
Con: Cold Eggs May Not Be Best for Baking
Lastly, some chefs claim that room-temperature eggs are the
best for baking. Because of this, some suggest letting
refrigerated eggs come to room temperature before using them.
If this is important to you, it is considered safe for eggs to
be left at room temperature for up to two hours. However, you
should be sure to cook them to a safe temperature afterward
Bottom Line: Refrigeration keeps eggs fresh
for more than twice as long as eggs kept at room temperature.
But they must be stored properly to prevent taste and
Do Eggs Need to Be Refrigerated?
It depends on where you live, since the way your country treats
Salmonella determines whether eggs really need to be
stored in the refrigerator or not.
In the US, fresh eggs need to be refrigerated. However, in many
countries in Europe and around the world, it’s fine to keep
eggs at room temperature for a few weeks.
If you don’t know whether the eggs you buy should be kept in
the fridge or not, check with your local food safety authority
to see what’s recommended.
If you’re still unsure, refrigeration is always the safest way