TAJMAHAL – A HISTORIC SCENARIO .
The tajmahal is a mausoleum located in agra , India , that was built under mughal emperor Shah jahan in memory of his favourite wife , Mumtaj mahal . It is a complete mixture of Persian , Turkish , Indian and Islamic architectural styles . It was cited as ” the jewel of muslim art in India and one of the universally admired master pieces of the world`s heritage ” by the UNESCO world heritage site in 1983. The Ustah ahmed lahauri is the principal designer of the taj mahal , who completed his integrated symmetric complex of strutures in 1648 .
When you considered the exterior decorations of the taj mahal , it is among the finest to be found in mughal architecture . As the surface area changes , a large pishtaq has more area than a smaller one and decorations are refined proportionally . The decorative elements were created by applying paint or stullo, or by stone inlays or carvings . In line with Islamic prohibition against the use of antropomorphic forms the decorative element can be grouped into either calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs .
The caligraphy found in tajmahal are of florid thuluth script , created by Persian caligrapher Amanat khan , who signed several of the panels . As one enters through tajmahal gate , the caligraphy reads , “O soul thou art at rest , Return to the lord at peace with him, and He at peace with you “. Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tesselation patterns.
The muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves and hence Mumtaj and Shah jahan are laid in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with their faces turned right and towards Mecca . Ninety names of god are to be found as calligraphic inscriptions on the sides of the actual tomb of Mumtaj mahal , in the crypt including “O Noble , O Magnificient ,O Majestic, O Unique , O EternalO Glorious . . . .” . The tomb of Shah jahan bears a calligraphic inscription that reads ;” He travelled from this world to the banquet- hall of eternity on the night of the twenty sixth of the month of Rajab, in the year 1076 Hijri ” .
As we move in to the garden of tajmahal , the complex is set around a large 300 metre square Charbagh , a Mughal garden . The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken partererres or flower beds . A raised marble water tank at the centre of the garden , halfway between the tomb and gateway , with a reflecting pool north-south axis reflects the image of the tajmahal . Elsewhere the garden is laid out with avenues of trees and fountains . The raised marble water tank is called Hawd al kawthar , in reference to ” Tank of Abundance ” promised to Muhammed .
The Charbagh garden , a design inspired by Persian gardens , was introduced to India by the first Mughal emperor Babar .I symbolizes four flowing rivers of paradise and reflects the gardens of paradise derived from the persian , paridaeza , meaning ” walled garden” . when the british took over the management of tajmahal , they changed the landscaping to resemble that of laws of London , it was not only a historic scenario , but also one of the wonders of world which still has a seperate place in the hearts of people.